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The companies are not going to sell the absolutely same product in another name. They will sell another version of that product that is likely to attract different people to buy from the same company.
The different segment can be divided by the price range, one product more expensive than the other. It can be based on distributive means, one only available online and the other in brick and mortar stores. It can be based on geography. available in one country only.
If you introduce multiple brands, the retailers might be more likely to order more from you since they are different in some ways. So, your shelf space will increase. The customers will also have the option to choose from a variety of options and ultimately you will not lose the revenue.
The internal benefits will be, first of all, economies of scale in different ways. You are producing much more than before if you introduce a new brand in the same company. But, your distribution channel will be the same. And the advertising cost will also go down in that way.
Another internal benefit is internal competition. Think about it, you have two different brands in the same company. It is expensive to keep the two up and running. And the people working in the different departments will know that. So, what they are likely to do is, they might want to outperform the other department in one way or another. If both of the departments want to outperform the other, the eventual winner is going to be the owner of them both.
Low-end entry level brands. A little cheaper, or a lot cheaper version of your brand under a different brand name. you want new customers to try out your products, so, you are not diluting your brand name and introducing a cheaper version under a new brand name. new customers are likely to try out your products, and if they are satisfied, they can try out other brands under your brand portfolio.
High-end, prestige brand. Better and expensive version of your brand. You might have a loyal customer base. You can introduce a newer brand that will be of better quality and price that the people might try out from you.
Cash cows. In this case, the cash cows are the brands that are not discontinued and kept for sale even when the sales are not what it used to be. It can be done when you don’t really need to spend too much on advertising cost. Keep manufacturing a small amount that can still bring profit. The cash cows are milked, there is no other use of them.
Flanker brands. They are also called fighters. These are the brands that are going to fight other brands in the market. Most of the times, these are the low end entry level brands. Most of the times. The job of the flankers is to protect the main brand name and capture other parts of the market. The flanker should not be so good that the customers of the original brand start going to them.
Flanking is a fighting term. When you are fighting someone, and instead of attacking them directly, you attack them from some unexpected position usually from a side or from behind, that maneuver is called flanking.